Live filesystem “capture” into a virtual disk image

ah… the joys of *nix utilities…. I’ve just successfully tested a “capture” of a live, running system into a virtual disk image. No, I don’t mean that I booted up with an imaging utility. I took a live, booted and logged in system and imaged the primary hard drive that it was living on, into a file on another machine. (Yeah, I know, there are probably a few people reading this and saying they’ve done that and most people that would need to do this already know how…. sorry I missed the memo.) Not too long ago, VMWare released a tool to do something like this (that tool is for windows…) This should work on any platform that supports dd and netcat (although I’m not sure if piping output from one program to another works with a dos command shell – maybe cygwin would be a good environment to accomplish this with.) Anyway… here are the details.

I’m putting the finishing touches on a backup server and wanted to have vmware server installed and setup on it “just in case”, because with all the storage it could certainly host a virtualized mail server or something in a pinch. Well, my main concern was how to quickly and easily get an image file of a LIVE filesystem. I know I could boot up to ghost4linux or ghost4unix or something and image over a network, but that increases the downtime. Now, realistically if this were a live system you’d probably want to disable as many network services as possible first so that there wasn’t new information. This method will start at bit 0 of the drive and progress straight through. In other words, there’s no going back because something changed.

On the machine that will “receive” the image, here’s what you do…. sudo nc -l -p 9998 | dd of=testimage.img this starts netcat listening on port 9998 for data and anything it get’s will be written to testimage.img *(my first attempt at port 9999 gave the following:: Can’t grab with bind :: I suspect something else was already using port 9999.)

Ok, now on the system to be imaged… with netcat installed (and dd)… sudo dd if=/dev/hda | nc ipaddressofreceiversystem 9998 (in other words, we start up dd with the primary drive (drive to be imaged) as the input file and pipe it to netcat (telling netcat to connect to the address of our recipient system at the correct port (same as specified on the receiver.))

Now, for a 2GB test image this took, maybe 5 minutes, I didn’t time it, but it was not long. I found someone estimating about like this…. “Typically 36GB drive may take 50 minutes over 100Mbps link.” So, that might give you an idea of what kind of time to expect.

But, the file created here is not suitable for vmware to use… yet. If you have qemu-img (from the qemu emulator) you can convert it like this…. qemu-img convert testimage.img -O vmdk testimage.vmdk and then vmware can use it as an existing disk image. But if you don’t have qemu (it’s free/open source) you might download that, or try and see if vmware-vdiskmanager can convert to the vmdk from a raw image file. Scratch that, I’ve just found the vmware forums for accomplishing this and they look messy – get qemu and use qemu-img for this it will be much easier.

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